CBX solves black layer problems
What is Black layer? Black layer is a black, malodorous layer within the rootzone that is caused by a lack of oxygen. Chemically, it is a deposit of metal oxides formed from the reduction of sulfur compounds in low oxygen conditions. The first indication that this layer is developing is a bad smell, like rotten eggs, from sulfides in the soil.
Black Layer is simply the sign of unfavorable soil microbial activity. In a well-drained and aerated soil (aerobic conditions), microorganisms that rely on oxygen for their life-sustaining processes are predominant. However under waterlogged conditions or as oxygen is depleted (anaerobic conditions) the makeup of the microbial population changes to those that utilize other compounds in place of oxygen. This is generally sulphur. When sulphur compounds are used, the end product is hydrogen sulphide - commonly known as ‘rotten egg gas.' Hence the smell!
Hydrogen sulphide is extremely toxic to plants, and it is very reactive with soil metals such as iron and manganese. This reaction forms metallic sulphides, which are black particles that make up the black layer. With severe black layer, these sulphide particles clog pore spaces, effectively reducing soil drainage and aeration. If this process continues over a long period, the soil will become sealed, inhibiting the penetration of water, oxygen and plant roots. Also the fine texture of the black particles makes the soil more likely to hold excess water, further aggravating the problem.
To avoid the Black Layer, anything that increases the amount of oxygen in the soil profile will be beneficial. This includes regular applications of CBX or slicing, scarifying, hollow tyning, mole-draining, or vertidraining. If Black Layer occurs, look for the cause, that is, thatch/rootmat, compaction, soil layers, waterlogging, poor drainage, and take steps to reverse the conditions.
CBX stimulates biological life of the soil which in turns increases organic matter. They can help build up topsoil, aerate the soil, transform elements into usable forms for plants, make the soil more livable for beneficial microorganisms, increase soil water-holding capacity, allow rainwater to seep deeply down to plant roots, and reduce the toxicity of both natural and human-made toxic substances.
CBX stimulates activity amongst a broad range of biological life. When applied to the soil, CBX encourages natural recycling of organic matter, resulting in micro-tunnels similar to the activities of earthworms do, just on a microscopic level. These micro-tunnels create a natural aerification process, allowing space for air and water to penetrate solving the root cause of Black layer, poor drainage.
To see how CBX has helped to solve Black Layer, see these case studies:
SRP's Pera Club - Retention Basin case study
Late in the summer of 2004, Environmental Techniques International joined a DesertWise study that was being conducted by SRP's Pera Club, located in Phoenix Arizona. The study was to test different products claiming to increase soil penetration and eliminate standing water in retention basins...more
Barona Creek Golf Club - Penetration case study
Barona Creek Golf Club is located in the foothills east of San Diego California on the Barona Indian reservation. The Course is managed by Sandy Clark CGCS who began using CBX in 2005, in hopes of saving water...more